Citizen participation in
project management in
Peruvian Municipalities
La participación ciudadana en la
gestión de proyectos en las
Municipalidades del Perú
Ana Beatriz Rivas Moreano
Master's Degree in Educational Administration,
Universidad Cesar Vallejo, Chiclayo, Peru
arivasmor@autonoma.edu.pe,
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2633-5717
Juan Pedro Soplapuco Montalvo
D. in Educational Sciences, Professor at the
Graduate School of the Universidad Cesar Vallejo,
Chiclayo, Peru smontalvojp@ucvvirtual.edu.pe,
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4631-8877,
Lourdes Ana Cotaquispe Guzmán
D. candidate in Education, Universidad César
Vallejo , Chiclayo, Peru
lcotaquispe@ucvvirtual.edu.pe
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3087-5409
Abstract
Citizen participation from its consideration for public
management and its immersion in the development of
each place has been widely disseminated by public
entities and international organizations, however, this
will have generated a true participation with interest
in political, public, social life and within the
management of projects in various sectors as an actor
that leads and contributes to the sustainable
development of cities or districts. This paper presents
important considerations on citizen participation in
project management as a fundamental part where
decisions, observations and contributions must be
Imaginario Social
Publishing entity
University of Guayaquil -
REDICME (reg-red-18-0061)
e-ISSN: 2737-6362
July - December 2021 Vol. 4-2-2021
http://revista-
imaginariosocial.com/index.php/es/index
Receipt: February 05, 2021
Acceptance: April 15, 2021
1-36
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taken into account in the impact of each project executed by a municipal entity, public
and private entities. In this way, it will be possible to transmit to every official and
professional that the citizen is the most important actor in the growth and
development of their locality.
Keywords: Citizen participation, project management.
Resumen
La participación ciudadana desde su consideración para la gestión pública y su
inmersión en el desarrollo de cada lugar se ha ido difundiendo mucho por entidades
públicas y organismos internacionales, sin embargo, esto habrá generado una
verdadera participación con interés en la vida política, pública, social y dentro de la
gestión de proyectos en diversos sectores como actor que conlleva y aporta al desarrollo
sostenible de las ciudades o distritos. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones
importantes sobre la participación ciudadana en la gestión de proyectos como parte
fundamental donde las decisiones, observaciones y aportes deben ser tomados en
cuenta en el impacto de cada proyecto ejecutado por una entidad municipal, entidades
públicas y privadas. De esta forma se podrá transmitir a todo funcionario y profesional
que el ciudadano es el actor más importante en el crecimiento y desarrollo de su
localidad.
Palabras clave: Participación ciudadana, gestión de proyectos
Introduction
In the history of the world and human life, there have always been big and historical
projects such as coliseums, museums, the great Machu Pichu, railroads, the great wall
of China, irrigation canals, construction of bridges, all with impressive results and
effective uses and satisfaction for the users or beneficiaries. At the same time it is
understood that it demanded high costs, thousands of workers for its execution, a plan
of activities, management of requirements and others even without having the
technology (Terribil 2011). These achievements have been with a real commitment and
responsibility of those who executed projects in which there is also a participation,
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observation and control by the citizens to show support and teamwork towards the
achievement of a good objective so that satisfaction is the majority.
The purpose of this article is to analyze citizen participation in the management of
projects executed in the municipalities of Peru, focusing on the most relevant
mechanisms of citizen participation and democracy in the political-public life and
legislation of the country, as well as the active involvement in the management of
projects that allow the development of the districts or simply are postponed in the
underdevelopment with lack of projects that improve the quality of life of the citizens.
In Peru, due to the public institutions created to watch over, promote a true citizen
participation is very scarce, and the relationship between the institutions and the
population is still weak, due to the lack of intercultural knowledge of the country, lack
of real legal records to recognize the location of their local social representatives, the
ethnic differences and cultural and social level of the actors (population - state) has
contributed to a remoteness of relationship and absenteeism in public policy. On the
other hand, right-wing and left-wing parties have always used citizenship to legitimize
their authority through referendums and votes, while promoting public policies or
reforms established by their own systems without developing a developed, democratic
and just society with equity and guaranteeing quality of life. (Barros-Bastidas &
Gebera, 2020), (Sol 2012). On the other hand, Anthopoulos et al (2016) state that the
existing gap between local, district governments and the implemented mechanisms of
active participation with tools motivated towards effective implementation of projects
in different contexts, have generated factors of failures and weaknesses in the projects,
generating a gap between government and citizenship. This implies the need for an
association of efforts with tasks and functions between project management, the
various processes to be developed at each stage, authorities and the population in
general as an important subject and beneficiary.
According to Castillo (2017), planning is required for effective citizen participation,
which in turn is productive in the planning of projects for their districts. For this
reason, municipalities are the closest entities and their officials are responsible for
promoting and transforming the population into a trained, informed and
knowledgeable user of government plans, management and proposed projects, being
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assertive and constructive in their decisions, thus becoming a strategic and important
partner for the common welfare (population - authorities).
Peru has a law on the rights of citizen participation and control enacted in 1993, which
stipulates, first, the rights of participation, including: referendum, municipal and
regional ordinances and other mechanisms that allow participation in current
legislation; second, the rights of citizen control such as the revocation and removal of
authorities, demand for accountability and other control mechanisms for regional
governments (Law No. 26300). Even with the existing limitations in public
management and the state, citizen participation is an essential opportunity to generate
debates and discuss at the level of Congress and citizenship to debate the problems
that keep them away from development, this approach is still very reduced with a few
convened through representatives who express their opinion, defend collective
interests that many times are not taken into account and others try to intimidate with
a series of legal arguments. This situation should not make us think that in order to
improve citizen participation should be an inseparable part of public policy, public
management and project management. Schneider and Welp (2015) consider that
participation mechanisms at the local level have become a double-edged sword in the
management of municipal and regional governments, one to oppose local
governments against certain policies implemented by the national government, driven
to weaken their local opponents through the revocation or removal of authorities,
having been created with the purpose of maintaining a closeness, and another to avoid
discontent, imbalance and fragmentation in front of the political system and
management decisions. If the law of participation was introduced, these should be
used with functional responsibility and not for political control.
On the other hand the management of projects in Peru according to the National
Infrastructure Plan aims to become a sustainable, competitive and developed country,
with the effort of proposal and direction of a series of projects, henceforth will generate
job opportunities and development, however in the cities far from the capital Lima or
capitals of each region this is, has been and will be scarce and with much delay from
its approach or start and all the bureaucratic part and requirements that must be met
for approval and implementation, and in many cases have been projects that do not
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meet the expectations of the population, lack a diagnosis, ignorance of the citizenship
of the projects to be implemented and real study as a project of a locality can not be
equal to the project of another locality, so that each locality has its own characteristics
and these should be analyzed.
Then it makes it clear that citizens should have close knowledge about the forms of
participation and especially in matters of public interest where project management is
included from a proposal, analysis, control and evaluation of all actions and resources
used in the projects so that failures, damage to the environment and improve
weaknesses can be avoided (SENACE 2018).
In this sense, for the development and improvement of the quality of life of the
inhabitants, it is necessary to undertake, establish adequate and standardized models
and guidelines for the management of public projects, which is the key process for the
establishment and execution of public projects, generating a duly developed society in
Peru.
In this scenario, the article aims to answer four research questions: Is there an active
participation of citizens in project management, are projects managed with the
knowledge of citizens, what kind of participation do we need to get involved in project
management, has project management contributed to development in the districts of
Peru, what are the mechanisms where the population can participate and what is the
knowledge about project management. The results of the scientific literary review on
the variables which will be analyzed and synthesized, the first one analyzes if the
participation is given in an effective way, which are the mechanisms where the
population can participate and the knowledge on project management, secondly to
clarify on the knowledge of projects managed in their locality and their participation
in it, thirdly the typologies or forms of participation in public management and on
cough in projects and finally to analyze and deduce if every executed project has
brought to the development, how it influences the citizenship and its interests. The
article ends with some conclusions.
Previous international works were examined Rivera (2018)whose work was to analyze
in a global way how the results are obtained after a discussion, the study area was in a
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municipality of Aguazul Casanare of the rural sector focused on rural drinking water
and sanitation projects executed by the mayor's office and formulated by the
community. The research concluded that citizen participation is very low due to the
lack of knowledge of the population on management issues. On the other hand, Pérez
(2020) analyzes citizen participation in the political construction of Europe. He
concludes that European states are reflecting on their future where participation
mechanisms should be more efficient and active, proposing concrete solutions to
problems in order to achieve development and remain together with legislation and
local authorities.
Materials and Methods
In this article, the inductive-deductive analysis-synthesis methods were used to
determine how citizen participation influences and intervenes in the management of
projects executed by the municipalities of Peru, with a quantitative approach (Carrasco
2017). The epistemological and praxeological approach to citizen participation in
project management is based on a synthesis of 345 articles, from 68 "open Access"
references found in Scopus, with the search term "citizen participation", "project
management", "Project Megament", "only in the title of the article", then a search was
conducted in other sources for the approach of the topic from public management in
terms of the execution of projects with citizen participation.
This research conforms to the quantitative approach of cross-sectional, non-
experimental type (Pino 2018) since bibliographic information was collected in order
to analyze and synthesize. The following are considered as variables; project
management and citizen participation, as an opportunity for participation and
knowledge of public life and project implementation in their district and citizen
participation as the right and duty of all citizens to participate in the affairs of public
life in their context (González 2019).
The synthesis analysis method (Pino 2018) is approached in a cross-cutting manner,
which allowed identifying the gaps that exist on citizen participation in project
management, at the same time there were opportunities to strengthen the mechanisms
of participation in the public and political life of the municipalities.